What is topography | topography meaning | World topography

What is topography | topography meaning | World topography

What is topography | topography meaning | World topography
What is topography | topography meaning | World topography

Topography meaning – Earth’s Surface Is Extremely Heterogeneous And These Asymmetries Have Also Been Formed By Different Processes. These Asymmetries Found On The Surface Of The Earth Are Called Topography. These Are Divided Into The Following Categories: 

1. Class I : Continental And Oceanic Basin 2

, Secondary Range: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains Etc. 

3. Third Class: Lake, River, Valley, Gorge, Waterfall, Mooren, Sand-Stupa.

Continents And Oceans

There Are Seven Continents And Four Major Oceans On Earth.

Topography Continent 

The Vast Land On The Surface Of The Earth Is Called A Continent. Most Of The Arid Regions Of The Earth Are Found On The Continents. There Are A Total Of Seven Continents On Earth, Which Are In Descending Order Of Area: 1. Asia 2. Africa 3. North America 4. South America 5. Antarctica 6. Europe 7. Australia

Topography ocean 

The Vast Water Body Found On The Surface Of The Earth Is Called Ocean. All The Aquatic Parts Are Interconnected, However They Are Divided Into Five Main Parts Which Are In Decreasing Order Of Size As Follows:

1. Pacific Ocean 3. Indian Ocean 2. Atlantic Ocean 4. Arctic Ocean.

Topography mountains

The Mountain Is Called The Second Order Relief. It Is Such An Elevated Part Of The Earth’s Surface Whose Slope Is Sharp And The Peak Area Is Narrow. These Are Generally Elevated Areas Above 600 M. Some Mountains Are More Than 8000 Meters High. In Some Mountains There Is A River Of Permanently Frozen Ice Which Is Called Glacier. There Are Some Mountains Which Are Not Visible Because They Are Within The Sea.

The Study Of Mountains Is Called Orology .

Types Of Mountains 

1. Fold Mountains: When Folds Are Formed In The Rocks By The Force Of Compression, It Is Called Folded Mountains. The Largest Extension Of Fold Mountains Is Found In The World. Examples Of Folded Mountains Are Himalaya, Alps, Rocky, Andes, Ural Etc.

Note: The Aravalli Range Of India Is One Of The Oldest Fold Mountains In The World. 

2. Block Mountain: This Mountain Is Formed By The Tensional Force. Due To The Tensional Force, Some Part Of The Crust Gets Raised And Some Part Gets Pushed Down. The Elevated Part Is Called Block Mountain And The Submerged Part Is Called Rift Valley. Examples Are Vosges (France), Black Forest (Germany), Sierra Nevada, Salt Range Etc. 

3. Volcanic Mountains: These Are Also Called Mountains Of Accumulation. They Are Formed By The Deposition Of Ejected Material As A Result Of Volcanic Eruption. For Example, Mount Kilimanjaro (Africa), Fujiyama (Japan) Etc. 4. Residual Mountains : They Are Formed By Erosion And Friction Of Early Mountains (Fold, Block Or Volcano). Aravalli Mountain Is An Example Of Residual Mountain. Apart From This, Examples Are Nilgiri, Parshvanath, Girnar, Rajmahal, Sierra (Spain) And Coskill (New York).

AndesSouth America
Himalaya-Karakoram-Hindu KushSouth Central Asia
RockyNorth America
Great Dividing RangeEastern Australia
Western GhatsWestern India
CaucasusEurope, Asia

Topography Plateaus

  • The Plateau Is A Second Grade Relief. It Covers One Third Of The Crust. The High Land Raised At Least 300 Meters Above Sea Level, Whose Summit Is Flat And Flat, Is Called Plateau. The Slopes Along The Edge Of The Plateau Are Steep. 
  • Like Mountains, Plateaus Can Also Be New Or Old. The Deccan Plateau Of India Is One Of The Oldest Plateau. The East African Plateau (Kenya, Tanzania And Uganda) And The Western Plateau Of Australia Are Other Examples.
  • Tibet Is The Highest Plateau In The World With An Altitude Of 4000-6000 Meters Above Sea Level. 
  • Plateaus Are Quite Useful As They Are The Deposits Of Minerals. This Is The Reason That Most Of The Mining Areas In The World Are Located In The Plateau Region. The African Plateau Is Famous For Gold And Diamond Mines. Large Deposits Of Iron, Coal And Manganese Are Found In The Chotanagpur Plateau In India.
DesertArea (Km)Extension Area
Help84,00,000Algeria, Chad, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Sudan, Tunisia, Egypt And Morocco
Australian15,50,000Great Sandry, Great Victoria, Simpson, Gibson And Stuart Desert Areas
Arabian13,00,000Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Syria, And Nafud Region
Gobi10,40,000Mongolia And China
Kalahari5,20,000Botswana (Central Africa)
Takla Maken3,20,000Siqiang (China)
Sonoran3,10,000Arizona And California (USA And Mexico)
Namib3,10,000Southern Africa (Namibia)
Thar2,60,000North-Western India And Pakistan

An Island Is Such A Part Of An Island Landmass That Is Surrounded On All Sides By Aquatic Parts. On The Basis Of Origin The Islands Can Be Divided Into Five Parts:

Tectonic Islands: Such Islands Are Formed Due To Land Subsidence, Uplift, Formation Of Rift Basins Or Separation Of Continental Landmass Through Geologic Activities. This Process Has Led To The Formation Of More Islands In The Atlantic And Pacific Ocean.

Depositional Islands: These Islands Are Formed By The Deposition Of Sediments By Various Factors (Eg Rivers, Glaciers, Ocean Currents).

Erosional Island When The Soft Rocks Are Eroded And The Hard Rocks Remain In Place, Then The Water Accumulation Around It Forms The Island, Which Is Called Erosional Island. The Island Of Greenland Was Formed By Glacial Erosion.

Volcanic Islands When Lava Deposits Eject From The Sea Surface, They Form Islands. Examples Are The Hawaiian Islands, The Aleutian Islands, Etc.

Coral Islands An Island Formed From The Skeletons Of Coral Insects Is Called An Atoll. Examples Of This Are Lakshadweep, Maldives, Bermuda, Etc.Show 102550100 EntriesSearch:

IslandLocationArea (Sq.Km)
GreenlandArctic Ocean21,75,000
New Guana OceanWestern Pacific789,900
BorniaIndian Ocean (Largest In The Indian Ocean)(751,000)
MadagascarIndian Ocean(587,041)
Baffin Island, CanadaArctic Ocean(5,07,451)
Sumatra, IndonesiaIndian Ocean(4,22,200)
Honshu, JapanNorth Pacific(2,30,092)
Great BritainNorth Atlantic(2,29,849)
Victoria Island, CanadaArctic Ocean(2,17,290)
Ellesmere Island, CanadaArctic Ocean(1,96,236)


A Strait Connects Two Different Water Bodies And Separates Two Landmasses. It Has Its Own Distinct Commercial And Strategic Importance.Show 102550100 EntriesSearch:

Strait Of MalaccaAndaman Sea And South China SeaIndonesia-Malaysia
Palk StraitPalk Bay And Bay Of BengalIndia-Sri Lanka
Sunda StraitJava Sea And Indian OceanIndonesia
Yucatan StraitGulf Of Mexico And Caribbean SeaMexico-Cuba
Messina StraitMediterraneanItaly-Sicily
Orto StraitAdriatic Sea And Ionian SeaItaly Albania
Bab-El-Mandeb StraitRed Sea-Gulf Of AdenYemen Djibouti
Cook StraitSouth Pacific OceanNew Zealand
Mozambique ChannelIndian OceanMozambique Malagasy
North ChannelIrish Sea And Atlantic OceanIreland-England


  • The Water Body Which Is Stored In A Trough On The Surface Of The Earth And Is Covered By Landmass On All Sides Is Called A Lake. 
  • Tectonic Lakes: Lake Titicaca, Caspian Sea
  •  Rift Valley Lakes: Tanganyika, Malawi, Rudolph, Edward, Albert, Dead Sea.
  • Lakes Associated With Volcanic Action (Crater Lake, Caldera Lake): Lake Oregon, Lake Toba. 
  • The Lake Formed By The Deposition By The River : Gokhur Lake | 
  • Lakes Formed From Marine Deposits: Lagoons, Deltas. 
  • Cart Lake: Lake Scotari In Yugoslavia 
  • Circ Or Tarn Lake: Red Tarn Lake (UK) 
  • Kettle Lake: Ocrane (Scotland)
Caspian SeaKazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan
Aral SeaKazakhstan-Azerbaijan
Great BeerCanada
(A) Largest Fresh Water Lake (By Volume Of Water)Baikal (Siberia)
(B) The Largest Fresh Water LakeSuperior
(C) Highest Navigable LakeTiticaca (Bolivia)
(D) Deepest LakeBaikal (Siberia)
(E) Largest Salt Water LakeDon Juan
(1) Lowest Lake (2500 Feet Below Sea Level)Dead Sea
(G) Meteoric Crater LakeLonar (In Maharashtra, India)
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